Light Background

You will receive here important definitions about light:

Accent illumination

Accent illumination

Accent illumination is the aiming of the luminaires onto one or more objects in the room. This creates individual focal points on the one hand and strong contrasts are created on the other hand. Luminaires with focused rays are used for accent illumination, such as ceiling recessed or ceiling surface-mounted luminaires. Point light sources (halogen light bulbs, low- and high-voltage and LED) come into question as light sources. The luminaires should be individually adjustable, because the locations of the objects in the room are usually variable.

Basic lighting

Basic lighting

Basic lighting or general lighting is the uniform and even illumination of living space. The light is not pointed in any special direction, i.e. it illuminates the entire room without placing any accents thereby. more

Beam angle

Beam angle

The beam angle (°) specifies the angle at which the lamp emits the light (only for reflectors). Narrower beam angle, greater light intensity. Candela (cd) is the unit of measurement of the light intensity (luminous fl ux) per solid angle unit.

Candela

Candela

The beam angle (°) specifies the angle at which the lamp emits the light (only for reflectors). Narrower beam angle, greater light intensity. Candela (cd) is the unit of measurement of the light intensity (luminous fl ux) per solid angle unit.

CE label

CE label

The CE label documents the conformity with the basic requirements of certain regulations of the European Union. The CE symbol is attached by the manufacturer or the importer in his own responsibility to the luminaire, the package or the accompanying documentation.

Ceiling lamp

Ceiling lamp

Ceiling lamps are usually lights for living areas that can be mounted on the ceiling, whereby design and construction of the luminaire underline this application. A diffuse light emission is typical that serves as a general and basic lighting. If the luminaire features directed light, it is usually not called a ceiling lamp but rather a spotlight. Many ceiling lamps can also be mounted as wall lamps. more

Clip luminaires

Clip luminaires

Clip luminaires are luminaires that can be clamped onto furniture or shelves for instance by means of a clamping fixture. The power for the luminaires comes from an electrical socket.

Cold-light mirror lamp

Cold-light mirror lamp

The cold-light mirror lamp is a special reflector lamp. The term cold light refers to the low heat proportion in the radiated light. In halogen reflector lamps with cold-light coating, the heat is mostly dissipated through the reflector layer out the back.

Colour rendering

Colour rendering

The colour rendering index (Ra) specifies how naturally the colour are reproduced under the given illumination. The best possible value is 100.

Colour temperature

Colour temperature

The luminous perceived colour of a lamp is characterised by the term colour temperature. The unit of measurement of the colour temperature is Kelvin (K). Colour temperatures up to 3,300 K are termed warm white, from 3,300 K to 5,300 K as neutral white and above 5,300 K as daylight white. more

Compact fluorescent lamp

Compact fluorescent lamp

A compact fluorescent lamp is a unit comprising of a fluorescent lamp, sockets plus all additional devices needed to ignite and run the lamp reliably, which cannot be disassembled without permanent damage.

see energy-saving bulb

Converter

Converter

This is a ballast that converts the voltage height and frequency of the input voltage.

Damp room luminaires

Damp room luminaires

Damp room luminaires are generally luminaires with an increased degree of protection that are protected by their type of construction against the penetration of moisture into the luminaire's interior (at least IP 44). Since the term damp room luminaire is not specific, the degree of protection is specified for luminaires. The degree of protection provides information on how high the protection against the penetration is against moisture for example.

IP Protection

Dimming

Dimming

Dimming is a mode of light control. A dimmer is used to control the luminous flux of a lamp. By what percentage a lamp can be dimmed, depends on the transformer. more

 

DIN VDE 0100 part 701

DIN VDE 0100 part 701

The DIN VDE 0100 is a national installation regulation for construction of electrical systems with nominal voltages of up to 1000 V. Part 701 of the DIN VDE 0100 describes the installation regulations for rooms with bathtubs and showers.

IP Protection

Direct lighting

Direct lighting

Direct lighting is when the light of a luminaire radiates directly onto the illuminated object. This is contrary to indirect lighting where the light reflects off of the room's surfaces such as ceilings and walls before it reaches the illuminated objects.

Discharge lamp

Discharge lamp

Discharge lamps contain two electrodes with a gas filling in between that lights up when a specific voltage is applied. There is a difference between high-pressure discharge lamps (sodium vapour, mercury vapour, and halogen-metal vapour lamps) and low-pressure discharge lamps (fluorescent lamps). In residential areas, only low-pressure discharge lamps (fluorescent lamps, compact fluorescent lamps) are of any importance.

Electronic ballast

Electronic ballast

An electronic ballast is a device for adjusting the mains voltage to the required lamp voltage. With LED products, electronic ballasts are called drivers if they create a constant current (variable output voltage) and as power supply if they create a constant DC voltage.

ENEC

ENEC

The ENEC symbol (European Norms Electrical Certification) is a European inspection and certification symbol also for luminaires and electrical components in luminaires. The symbol documents the conformity of the product with the basic valid European norms and the inspection of the current production by inspectors of the respective testing institutes. The ENEC symbol is displayed in combination the identification number of the national testing institute along with their own logo.

Energy Label

Energy Label

The energy label serves for standardised identification of the energy efficiency. It presents in a clear format the energy-efficiency class and provides additional information for purchase decisions of especially energy-saving bulbs. more

Energy-efficiency class

Energy-efficiency class

Bulbs are also categorised in energy-efficiency classes. The energy efficiency is determined based on the luminous power (luminous flux, units: lumen) per watt consumed. The energy-efficiency class 'A++' designates very good energy efficiency, whereas 'E' is low.

Energy-saving bulb

Energy-saving bulb

According to EU regulations, compact fluorescent lamps may be called energy-saving bulbs when they fulfil these special energy efficiency requirements. Energy-saving bulbs feature an integrated electronic ballast.

EVG

EVG

Abbreviation for "elektronisches Vorschaltgerät", i.e. German for electronic ballast. Electronic ballasts are especially efficient compared to low-loss and conventional ballasts.

look at Electronic ballast

Fire protection symbols

Fire protection symbols

Symbols for fire protection on luminaires indicate the suitability for mounting on certain surfaces depending on their flashpoint temperature (valid until 12.04.12). A luminaire, without F-sign in the future, is suitable for the installation at normal flammable surfaces. Exception:

surface-mounted luminaire: Not for direct installation on normal flammable surfaces suitable luminaires.

 

donwlights: Not suitable for direct installation on normal flammable building materials (just suited for installation on not flammable surfaces).

 

Not for covering with heat insulating material suitable luminaires.

 

Floor lamps

Floor lamps

Floor lamps are those luminaires for the living area that usually are placed freely in a room and that feature a pedestal. The independence from a fixed mounting makes floor lamps a multifunctional problem solver for lighting purposes. There are different floor lamps with directed light, e.g. for workplace lighting, with diffuse light for general room illumination and with light for indirect lighting, e.g. in the shape of ceiling floodlight.

Floor recessed luminaires

Floor recessed luminaires

Floor recessed luminaires emit the light upwards. They are often used to mark paths or as accentuating illumination.

General light bulbs

General light bulbs

In general light bulbs (GLB), a tungsten filament spiral is heated to about 2500 °C by the lamp's current. Due to the high spiral temperature, visible rays (light) are emitted. The lamp's interior is filled with gas or has vacuum to prevent the tungsten filament from burning.

General lighting

General lighting

General lighting or basic lighting is the uniform and even illumination of living space. The light is not pointed in any special direction, i.e. it illuminates the entire room without placing any accents thereby. more

GS mark

GS mark

With the GS mark, accredited test institutes confirm the conformity of a product with the Equipment Safety Act. The GS mark may be used only in combination with the symbol of the test institute. Field of application of the mark is Germany. Test institutes are for example in Germany the TÜV - Technischer Überwachungsverein (Technical Inspection Agency) or the VDE-Institut (Institute of the German Electrical Engineering Association).

Halo+

Halo+

In Halo+ technology, krypton is used, which has very poor heat conduction properties. Less heat is dissipated thereby by the spiral. Thus, less energy is needed to generate the same luminous flux as in conventional technology.

Halogen

Halogen

Halogens are certain chemical materials that are extremely reactive. When used in lamps, they serve to achieve a very long lamp service life.

Halogen lamps

Halogen lamps

Lamps with tungsten filament spiral that contain a special gas filling such as halogens.

High-voltage

High-voltage

Common term used with 230 V lamps and luminaires in the lamp and luminaires industry.

Illumination intensity

Illumination intensity

The illumination intensity (lux) is the light that strikes a surface. The illumination intensity is specified by the luminous flux of a lamp in lumen (lm) in regards to the illuminated surface in m². more

Illumination level

Illumination level

The illumination level describes the average illumination intensity in a room or at various locations. The illumination level depends on the emitted light of the luminaires and the reflection characteristics of the room's surfaces.

Indirect lighting

Indirect lighting

Light that is reflected by a room surface (wall, ceiling) after it is emitted from the luminaire before it reaches the illuminated objects.

IP protection

IP protection

The type of protection (IP xy) specifies the suitability of luminaires for various ambient conditions. The x states something about the protection concerning the penetration of foreign objects and the y states something about the penetration of moisture.

IP safe areas

Kelvin

Kelvin

Kelvin is the basic unit of the temperature and the measurement unit of the colour temperature. Kelvin was named after William Thomson, the later Lord Kelvin, who introduced the thermodynamic temperature scale in 1848. The colour temperature is specified in Kelvin (K) for lamps.

Colour temperatures up to 3,300 K are termed warm white, from 3,300 K to 5,300 K as neutral white and above 5,300 K as daylight white. more

Lamp

Lamp

A lamp or a bulb is the technical realisation of an artificial light source.

LED

LED

LEDs are light diodes – the abbreviation stands for "Light Emitting Diode". These electronic semiconductor components convert significantly more energy into light than into heat. Compared to conventional light bulbs, they are therefore much more efficient and environmental.

Light

Light

Light is the spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation visible to the human eye. This spectrum is limited by the wavelength range of 380 nm (nano metres) to 780 nm. Light at a wavelength of 380 nm appears blue and light with a wavelength of 780 nm appears red. In between that, lie all other colours of the spectrum.

Light intensity

Light intensity

The light intensity is the luminous flux that is emitted in a certain direction from a lamp. The light intensity is specified in candela (cd). This is important for reflector lamps that bundle the light. The narrower the beam angle, the greater is the focussing and the light intensity.

Light yield

Light yield

The light yield (lumen per watt) specifies the efficiency of lamps. The more light (lumen) that is created per applied energy / electricity (watt), the less the costs are and all the greater is the efficiency. more

Low-voltage

Low-voltage

Common term used with 12 V lamps and luminaires in the lamp and luminaires industry.

Low-voltage protector

Low-voltage protector

Certain defined maximum voltage height and galvanic separation to prevent electrical shocks (AC power supply system = max 60V, DC power supply = 120V).

Lumen

Lumen

Lumen (lm) is the unit of measurement of the luminous flux. The luminous flux the total amount of light that the light emits. more

Luminaire

Luminaire

A luminaire is an object that serves to illuminate and that features a mount for a bulb (socket) or a permanently installed bulb (e.g. an LED module). The luminaire contains components for light direction, fastening, establishing electrical connections, guaranteeing the protective class, the type of protection, etc. Luminaires significantly define the design of a room by their construction and the light that they emit.

Luminous flux

Luminous flux

The luminous flux is the total luminous power emitted by a light source, weighted by the spectral light sensitivity of the eye. Lumen (lm) is the unit of measurement of the luminous flux. more

Luminous perceived colour

Luminous perceived colour

The luminous perceived colour of a lamp is characterised by the term colour temperature. The unit of measurement of the colour temperature is Kelvin (K). Colour temperatures up to 3,300 K are termed warm white, from 3,300 K to 5,300 K as neutral white and above 5,300 K as daylight white. more

Luminous power

Luminous power

Luminous power defines the radiation output emitted by a bulb in the visual wavelength spectrum (380 nm to 780 nm). This radiation output is weighted with the spectral sensitivity of the human eye. 

Lux

Lux

Lux (lx) is the unit of measurement of the illumination intensity. A point-shaped light source with a light intensity X candela creates exactly X lux on a vertically illuminated surface at a distance of 1 metre. In brief: 1 lux (lx) equals one lumen (lm) per square metre of illuminated surface.

Motion detector

Motion detector

Motion detectors have the purpose of detecting movements in the monitored area. That is why these components are practical for switching on lights in our case. There are various motion detectors; those that react passively to heat rays (coll. PIR, IR or also proximity switch) or actively with high-frequency wave movements (HF sensors). Motion detectors usually feature an integrated dimming switch.

Orientation luminaires

Orientation luminaires

These are luminaires that are not used for illumination, but rather provide orientation by light points or stripes for example.

PAR lamps

PAR lamps

see reflector lamps

Pendant lamps

Pendant lamps

Pendant lamps are usually lights for the living area that feature a variable fixture such as an adjustable pulley or a height-adjustable cable to bring the light source from where it is mounted closer to the surface to be lit (e.g. ceiling pendant lamp over the dining table). Pendant lamps are used to avoid glares and to concentrate the illumination on the desired area.

Picture lamps

Picture lamps

Luminaires, especially designed for pictures, make it possible to place a picture in the right light at an ideal angle and distance. Since the same illumination criteria are valid for mirrors, picture lamps can be used here just as well.

Power consumption

Power consumption

This is the term for the consumption of electricity from the mains in watt (W).

Power rails

Power rails

These are rails that are equipped with electrical conductors and that serve to connect luminaires to.

Protection classes

Protection classes

Classification of the protection against electrical shock. There exist the protection classes I, II and III. Protection class I features an earthing (cable identification green/yellow). The double insulation of the protection class II is used for example in connection with euro plugs without earthing. Protection class III specifies devices that are operated with low-voltage protectors.

Recessed luminaire

Recessed luminaire

Usually this term is used for ceiling lamps. Ceiling recessed luminaires are mounted in hollow spaces or suspended ceilings; most of its body is hidden. Often the light emission opening is flush with the ceiling. Recessed luminaires are suitable for living spaces, outdoors, for recessed- or surface-mounting on furniture, for mood-setting starry skies or for very special applications: You can realise your own personal lighting wishes with the high-quality as well as decorative recessed luminaires from Paulmann. more

Reflector

Reflector

Part of a luminaire or a bulb (reflector lamp) to direct the light.

Reflector lamps

Reflector lamps

Reflector lamps are bulbs that contain a reflector and create directed light.

RGB colour mixture

RGB colour mixture

Up to 2 million different adjustable colours can be created from the colours red (R), green (G) and blue (B), depending on the luminaire, but a continuous colour change is also possible.

Security reflector lamps

Security reflector lamps

SECURITY lamps are halogen reflector lamps. Contrary to cold-light lamps, SECURITY lamps emit up to 80 % of the radiation heat to the front in the lighting direction. This significantly reduces the temperatures for example in hollow ceilings with recessed luminaires.

Service life

Service life

The median service life is specified for the service life of lamps. The median service life is the number of lighting hours by which 50 % of a lamp installation has malfunctioned.

Socket

Socket

The socket is the part of the lamp that provides the mechanical mount and the electrical contact and fixtures.

Spotlights

Spotlights

Spotlights are 1- to 6-bulb luminaires in which the spots are mounded fixed on a base. Contrary to wire/rail and rod systems, the spots cannot be moved flexibly on the base. The luminaire heads of the spotlights can be adjusted flexibly by a joint to the respective lighting requirements.

Table lamps

Table lamps

Table lamps are those luminaires for the living area that usually are placed freely in a room and that are ideally suited for being placed for example on a table, a windowsill or on a sideboard due to their smaller size. Table lamps are especially employed for accent or additional basic lighting. A special design is the desk lamp that can also feature – as an alternative to a pedestal – a fastening clamp and that provides directed, glare-free and sufficiently bright working light.

Transformer

Transformer

A transformer is used for the increase or reduction of AC voltages as well as the simultaneous galvanic separation of various electrical circuits. The purpose of a transformer in halogen low-voltage technology is to reduce the mains voltage from 230 V to a voltage of 12 V.

Twilight switch

Twilight switch

A twilight switch switches the light on depending on the prevailing ambient light. After a certain time, which can be adjusted to a degree, the light is switched off again.

Type of protection

Type of protection

IP protection

Uplight

Uplight

Uplights (also floor recessed luminaire or ceiling floodlight) direct their light primarily upwards to the ceiling; with adjustable reflectors, also to the wall near the ceiling. From there it reflects into the room as indirect lighting.

VDE

VDE

Inspection symbol of the VDE-Institut (Institute of the German Electrical Engineering Association)

Wall lamps

Wall lamps

Wall lamps are usually lights for living areas that can be mounted on walls, whereby design and construction of the luminaire underline this application (e.g. wall torch light). In addition to contributing to basic lighting, wall lamps can also be employed to achieve special light effects. Wall floodlights are used for creating indirect light.

Watt

Watt

Physical unit of the output.

Wire and rail systems

Wire and rail systems

Wire and rrail systems are luminaires that can be used to distribute light variably around the room. With wire systems (usually 12V technology), the luminaires are supplied with electricity through two parallel strung wires. These two insulated copper wires simultaneously serve as holders for the spots. With rail systems, the electrical supply is via rails (conducting parts on the inside) or by filigree rods. The luminaires are either fastened in a rail (230 V) or mounted on rods (12 V).

Zamac

Zamac

In our program, we carry various types of die-cast luminaires. An aluminium-zinc alloy (Zamac) is used as the basic material. These materials a more resistive to corrosion that steel and therefore are suited for bathroom areas.