FAQ - general

What is a candela (cd)?

What is a candela (cd)?

Candela (cd) is the unit of measurement of the light intensity (luminous flux per solid angle). The light intensity is the luminous flux that is emitted in a certain direction from a lamp. The smaller the beam angle, the greater the focus and the candela value.

Standard halogen 230V reflectors with a 30° beam angle:
25W = 550cd, 35W = 700cd, 50W = 800cd

Standard halogen 12V reflectors with a 10° beam angle:
20W = 3500cd, 35W = 4100cd, 50W = 10000cd

Standard halogen 12V reflectors with a 38° beam angle:
20W = 700cd, 35W = 1250cd, 50W = 1700cd

Standard halogen 12V reflectors with a 60° beam angle:
20W = 400cd, 35W = 630cd, 50W = 1000cd  

What is a "protective earth"?

What is a "protective earth"?

On systems with protection class 1, shock protection is established by ensuring that all exposed metal parts are earthed. As a result, the power cable to the device has a separate protective earth wire (yellow/green) that is clamped to the earth connection of the device. An earth pin is used on the device plug where the device is earthed to the power socket.

What is the difference between an F-mark and an M-mark?

What is the difference between an F-mark and an M-mark?

The "F-mark" (international inspection standard) essentially corresponds to the "MM-mark" (national inspection standard). Lamps with the F-mark or MM-mark may be installed on normal flammable materials. (Wood that is more than 2 mm thick.) Temperatures on attached and neighbouring surfaces must not exceed temperatures of 90°+5°C.